Istasazeh
FA Ar

Human civilization has come a long way in the construction of buildings but technology will be the dominant spirit of modern structures, and in the future of the Building construction industry will be executed as prefabricated.

It currently takes several months to build a four-story apartment from foundation to joinery. But there are indications that in the not-too-distant future, the apartment could be operational within a few working days. In fact, all the prefabricated parts are assembled and displayed on the project site.

Building construction
Building construction – Istasazeh Co
Building construction - Istasazeh Engineering Construction Co
Building construction – Istasazeh Engineering Construction Co

Cd. Interestingly, in terms of durability, productivity and performance of the final product will also have significant advantages over traditional construction methods. The most important issue is the specialized and more expensive construction because this price increase did not occur due to inflation and the usual trend, but due to technology-oriented production. This means that in the future, not everyone will be able to work in construction anymore, and the process of designing and executing a project will be extremely precise and specialized. As a result, if you are a big company, this news can be considered positive and pleasant for you.

Building construction

In recent centuries, population growth in the world has increased dramatically. Mankind solved many problems scientifically and technically. In the construction of housing, there were major changes and the construction of single-unit homes did not meet the needs of communities, and therefore the building construction system was completely transformed and more durable materials were used in the construction industry.

The building is constructed for living and as a shelter or for work, which divides the environment into two parts, inside and outside. In general, any structure can be called a building. A building is a construction made of materials such as cement, brick, plaster, iron, and so on.

Building construction -  Istasazeh Co
Building construction – Istasazeh Co

Some buildings are classified according to their height. For example, buildings that are taller than a certain height size are called high-rise buildings. It is interesting to know that according to the resolution of the Supreme Council of Urban Planning and Architecture in Iran in 1998, buildings that have more than six floors are called high-rise buildings.

Buildings are divided into four main groups based on their importance and use:

  1. A very important building
  2. An important building
  3. A medium importance building
  4. A low importance building
The following is a brief description of the stages from zero to one hundred construction and execution of the building.
building construction – Group of buildings

The following is a brief description of the stages from zero to one hundred construction and execution of the building.

Stages zero to one hundred building construction and execution of the building

  1. Demolition of the building
  2. Excavation
  3. Execution of the foundation
  4. Execution of frame (metal and concrete)
  5. Cornering the wall posts
  6. Sleeper wall
  7. Installing the lintel
  8. Installing the frame and form of the wall cupboard
  9. Plaster and soil
  10. Ducting the cooler or dog split
  11. Gas piping
  12. Water and sewage piping
  13. Metal lath of the ceiling
  14. Electrical piping of the building
  15. Elevator ironing
  16. Cement work floor and walls of services for insulation
  17. Sloping of roof, ridge and floor of units, parking and storage
  18. Insulation of services, kitchen, terrace, roof, and so on
  19. Cement work on waterproofing or asphalt felt
  20. Execution of building facade
  21. Ceramic and tile work
  22. Stonemasonry
  23. Building wiring
  24. Installing the elevator cabin
  25. Plaster surface
  26. Installing stair railings
  27. Cement work and whitewashing the facade of the building
  28. Installation of kitchen cabinets and wall cupboards
  29. Painting the building
  30. Closing valves and service installations
  31. Closing the switch and socket
  32. Installing the baseboard
  33. Installing doors
  34. Cleaning

1. Building demolition

In terms of physical structure, building demolition includes selective demolition of building components, especially used for recycling, and waste management. This is different from demolition, in which a specific area is generally cleared of the building by the most severe methods. Demolition is called reverse construction.

2. Excavation

It is any drilling and earth-moving at a level below ground surface or below the foundation of a building adjacent to an excavation that is sometimes confused with the terms earth-moving and excavation in civil and construction operations. Earth-moving is the removal of only surface elevations from the ground, while excavation is the extraction of soil with great depths.

3. Execution of the foundation

The set of parts of the structure and the soil in contact with it, through which the load is transferred between the structure and the ground, is called the foundation. In general, foundations can be divided into 3 main groups:

  1. Shallow foundations
  2. Deep foundations
  3. Semi-deep foundations
 Construction of building - 3 main groups of foundation
Construction of building – 3 main groups of foundation

4. Frame execution

4.1. Steel frame

The metal frame is the main body of today’s buildings. The buildings with which they are built have high strength against all kinds of pressures. The metal frame is made of steel beams and columns that are connected vertically and horizontally. This frame speeds up the project and significantly reduces the weight of the building. The use of this structure makes it possible to repair at any stage of construction without causing any damage. Also, its execution reduces the volume of the foundation and provides the possibility of inspection and non-destructive testing in all stages of execution.

Construction of  building - Steel frame
Construction of building – Steel frame

4.2. Concrete frame

A Concrete structure is a structure that is made of concrete or usually reinforced concrete (cement, sand, steel in the form of a simple or ribbed bar). A Concrete structure is a structure that uses reinforced concrete in the columns, beams and foundations. A Concrete frame building is a building in which the members of compressive load-bearing members or columns are of the reinforced concrete type that is formed and executed on site. Also, all the main beams are made of concrete and the shear wall that is used to deal with lateral forces is usually made of concrete.

5. Cornering the wall posts

It supports the wall and causes the wall to collide with the frame, thus making the wall stronger against earthquakes. It is a coil that is used at certain lengths to integrate the wall.

6. Sleeper wall

A sleeper wall or masonry wall using brick materials is the cheapest way to build a wall. If the wall bricks can be removed safely during demolition, they can be used in the wall of a new building. Of course, in most cases, old bricks are rotten and the wall from which it is made does not have the desired strength.

7. Installing the lintel

They are one-piece beams that are installed on top of the doorway. The main function of this lintel is to bear the weight of loads applied to the walls. The surface of a wall or column that rests on either end of the doorway is called a support. The height of the lintel should be between 15 and 25 cm, which should be placed on the side walls or support from each side.

8. Installing the frame and form of the wall cupboard

The frame and form of the door is a frame that is placed inside the doorway and is connected to it through the hinge, in other words, the frame can be considered as an element that includes the door hinges. The frame alone must be able to withstand the weight of the door and the impact of opening and closing it, and therefore must have sufficient strength.

9. Plaster and soil

Plaster and soil are suitable for tooling due to the presence of stone that has kaolin and due to the clay state. The building uses a combination of plaster and clay soil to make mortar, and plaster alone is used for whitewashing, which is ready to be painted. One of the important characteristics of building plasters is quick hardening. Good building plasters often take more than 8 minutes and less than 25 minutes to start hardening, and finish hardening between 20 and 60 minutes.

10. Ducting the cooler or dog split

Ventilation system using duct air cooler is one of the methods used to provide environmental comfort conditions. Ventilation systems transfer hot, cold, humid or non-humid air to the target space. Ventilation systems consist of air conditioners, ducts, gates, dampers and control components. Ducting systems are channels for the flow of air back and forth.

11. Gas piping

Gas is one of the fossil fuels used to generate energy and heat in buildings. It is very important to implement the gas piping of the building in a principled way and to pay attention to safety points because any carelessness may lead to financial and human losses. Therefore, it is recommended to go through these 6 stages for gas piping:

  1. Forming a file in the organization of the engineering system
  2. Appointing a supervisor
  3. Appointing a contractor or executor
  4. Completion of piping
  5. Obtaining supervisor approval
  6. Execution of sign and Gasometer
Construction of building - Gas piping
Construction of building – Gas piping

12. Water and sewage piping

The water required for the building is supplied through a piping system. Therefore, piping is one of the most important issues in construction, the proper execution of which increases the life of the building and reduces costly damage. In addition, this system is also effective for removing sewage from the building. Different pipes are used for water and sewage piping, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages.

13. Metal lath of the ceiling

Metal lath is steel nets that are applied before final plastering for substructure. Metal lath nets are connected to the subnet with wires for the metal lath.

14. Electrical piping of the building

The building’s electrical piping is used in dropped and non-dropped ceilings for protection in the building’s electrical installations. Such pipes are classified according to several factors such as fire and heat protection, connection methods, electrical characteristics and the possibility of greater flexibility.

15. Elevator ironing

It is the execution of the structure in the elevator shaft to which all the elevator loads enter and is the connection point of the elevator rails. Generally it includes columns (located at the four corners of the shaft, usually at the L100*100), coiling (which runs at appropriate distances from each other on both sides of the shaft except the entrance at the shaft head, usually UNP80), the last coil for roof of the shaft of an elevator.

16. Cement work floor and walls of services for insulation

Waterproofing should be installed in such a way as to prevent humidity leakage and so on. When applying waterproofing, the bottom surface should not have a high post, because otherwise, the connection of waterproofing strips will not be done properly and will cause problems. For this reason, a layer of cement should be applied on the bottom surface before waterproofing to be completely smooth.

17. Sloping of roof, ridge and floor of units, parking and storage

Sloping or tilting is an executive and precise detail that must be done correctly. Sloping is mostly used to move and direct water which used for the following places:

  • Outdoor spaces: landscaping, sidewalk construction, yard construction
  • Small sloping: Roof sloping
  • Drainage services: bathroom, toilet, kitchen, and so on.

18. Insulation of services, kitchen, terrace, roof, and so on

Insulation means covering the surface of roofs, walls and floors, which is done by one or more layers using insulation to prevent humidity and water from penetrating into the substrate.

19. Cement work on waterproofing or asphalt felt

Sometimes waterproofing is used for insulation. Adding a layer on the waterproofing, including cement, tile or ceramic, requires the observance of the points that are necessary to increase the life of the waterproofing and the correct installation of the outer layers.

20. Execution of building facade

The facade of the building is the main visual component of a structure and plays a key role in enhancing the value of a building. So that if the neighboring facade is not considered in the execution of the facade of the building will cause heterogeneity of the urban texture. The style of design and execution of building facades in cities and countries is completely different and can be influenced by various factors such as climate, neighborhoods, adjacent places and so on.

Construction of building - Execution of building facade
Construction of building – Execution of building facade

21. Ceramic and tile work

In construction services, one of the most common methods of floor and wall covering is the use of ceramic and tile services, in which elegance plays an important role in the beauty of your building space.

22. Stonemasonry

Stonemasonry is the placement of stone in parts of the building that for any reason want beauty and luxury and heat and cold insulation.

23. Building wiring

Contrary to popular belief, wiring, or so-called building electrical work, is quite specialized. It is possible that if the wiring of the building is done for any reason, it will cause trouble to the residents throughout the life of the building.

24. Installing the elevator cabin

The cabin is a container that carries passengers or cargo or both and it is possible for people to control the movement from inside and the decorations inside the cabin are different and executed according to the type of elevator use.

25. Plaster surface

One of the works that is done in the joinery stage of the building is plastering. Plastering creates a smooth and uniform surface and makes it possible to perform any type of decorative work on walls and ceilings. Plaster is a natural substance known scientifically as water-containing calcium sulfate. Plaster is extracted from the mine and after heating, it turns into a white powder.

26. Installing stair railings

Many designers consider the railings to be the only means of protection. While today, in addition to observing safety principles, we must also consider the principles of beauty and identify all issues in terms of beauty and safety.

27. Cement work and whitewashing the facade of the building

Due to the good resistance of cement against atmospheric factors such as humidity, etc., cement is used to cover exterior walls.

28. Installation of kitchen cabinets and wall cupboards

Today’s kitchens and homes are very different from the old ones. A kitchen forms the heart of a home and plays an essential role in the beauty of the home and the design of the interior decoration of the home.

29. Painting the building

Painting the building is the fastest and most effective way to change the interior and exterior of buildings. Indoor painting is done using a variety of building paints.

30. Closing valves and service installations

The last thing a piping work does in a building and what is finally seen in the piping is the valves. To install the valves, the necessary care and cleanliness must be used so that the valves show themselves well.

31. Closing the switch and socket

Electrical switches and sockets are important parts of the home, workplace and any environment where electricity is flowing and without them, many problems will occur. The installation of switches and sockets, while not a problem, must be done carefully and all safety points must be considered during installation.

Building construction
Building construction

32. Installing the baseboard

The baseboards hide the space between the wall and the floor and protect the wall from impacts, scratches and any collision and water, and of course it has a beautiful aspect. Typically, the width of the baseboards is 7 and 9 cm and their thickness are  usually 17 mm.

33. Installing doors

The entrance is one of the essential parts of any home that ensures the privacy and security of the residents. Doors come in a variety of shapes and materials.

34. Cleaning

There are many duties and responsibilities for internal cleaning and debris collection in the building, which must be done according to the employer’s order and in the shortest time.

Related contents:

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)

designing buildings , Types of structure

petervaldivia , Building Structure

Pinterest , structure architecture

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